Analysis of the Financial Aspects of Operating Table Games with Limited Capacity in the Casino Industry

When it's time to reopen, casinos in Nevada are putting in a lot of effort to ensure they comply with the state's gaming regulations. One of these regulations is to decrease the number of players allowed per table. This requirement poses a challenge for the casinos in terms of running lower limit table games and making a profit from them. Operating these games with fewer players becomes more difficult.

In most table games, you'll generally find that the maximum number of seats allowed is three. However, when it comes to roulette, things are a little different, as these tables are permitted to accommodate up to four players. On the other hand, if you're looking to play craps, you'll find that the maximum number of players allowed is six, with three players on each side of the table. It's important to keep these seating limitations in mind when planning your casino adventures.

Expenses related to employing individuals for table games

There are approximately two employees per table for blackjack and roulette, including a dealer, a breaker, and a pit supervisor. Craps, on the other hand, requires three dealers, a supervisor, a breaker, and a fraction to accommodate an additional supervisor and breaker.

The problem lies on the labor side of the equation, where the challenge arises. To ensure that all expenses are covered, both blackjack and roulette tables must generate approximately $30 per hour, taking into account labor costs, payroll taxes, and benefits. On the other hand, a craps table needs to generate around $85 an hour to meet these financial obligations. It's important to note that these estimates may differ from casino to casino, and they do not encompass additional perks such as complimentary drink service, free bets, meals, and hotel accommodations. Moreover, the cost of extra cleaning supplies and the employees responsible for this task should also be considered.

In casinos, it's common to encounter players who like to mix things up and place bets that exceed the minimum requirement. These individuals contribute to raising the overall average, which is exactly what casinos desire. However, it's crucial for them to anticipate situations where this may not occur. Consequently, they must strategize and prepare for the possibility of some tables remaining unoccupied, waiting for players to join in and balance out the wagering dynamics. Additionally, games might experience a decrease in pace to accommodate more frequent and thorough cleaning procedures.

The potential earnings of a shorthanded blackjack table

In Las Vegas, the blackjack games are pretty standard. They usually use a shoe, meaning multiple decks of cards are used. The payout ratio is 3:2, which means if you win, you'll get 1.5 times your bet. Another advantage for players is that they can double down before and after splitting their cards. However, the dealer has a slight advantage because they hit on a soft 17, which means they can take an additional card. Overall, this combination of rules gives the house an edge of around 0.65 percent. Now, let's take a look at the theoretical house win on a three-handed blackjack table, based on the average bet and the number of hands played per hour. The estimates we'll be using are from the Wizard of Odds, a reputable source in the gambling community.

Explanation for multi-player table theoretical: Total accumulation of one player per table

3:2 blackjack

Heads up

  • $5: $6.79
  • $10: $13.59
  • $15: $20.38
  • $25: $33.96
  • $50: $67.93
  • $100: $135.85


  • $5: $4.52/$9.04
  • $10: $9.04/$18.08
  • $15: $13.55/$27.10
  • $25: $22.59/$45.18
  • $50: $45.18/$90.35
  • $100: $90.35/$180.70


  • $5: $3.41/$10.23
  • $10: $6.83/$20.40
  • $25: $17.06/$51.18
  • $50: $34.13/$102.39
  • $100: $68.25/$204.75

In certain lower limit tables, Las Vegas Strip casinos, along with some establishments in other sectors, have the option to pay out 6:5 on a blackjack hand. To provide a better understanding, I have prepared a chart that illustrates the projected hourly profit for the house in these games, taking into account a two percent house edge.

6:5 blackjack

Heads up

  • $5: $20.90
  • $10: $41.80
  • $15: $62.70


  • $5: $13.90/$27.80
  • $10: $27.80/$55.60
  • $15: $41.70/$83.40


  • $5: $10.50/$31.50
  • $10: $21/$63
  • $15: $31.50/$94.50

In the reopening phase, we can expect that the initial wave of guests will primarily consist of seasoned players who possess a thorough understanding of blackjack and its strategies. These individuals are well-versed in the art of playing the game, as there will be limited alternative attractions and amenities available. It is important to note that the figures provided earlier take into account those players who adhere to basic strategy but do not employ card counting techniques. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to anticipate that the actual losses may be slightly higher due to the occasional errors made by players during gameplay.

Anticipated victory for the house in various variations of roulette.

Here are the outcomes of single, double, and triple zero games as roulette tables will now allow up to four players per table.

Single zero

The Plaza casino provides an attractive $10 single zero roulette option, while at the Cromwell, the same game is available at a higher price of $25. Let's take a look at the theoretical hold percentages for these tables:

Heads up

  • $10: $15.12
  • $25: $37.80

Two players

  • $10: $10.26/$20.52
  • $25: $25.65/$51.30

Three players

  • $10: $8.10/$24.30
  • $25: $20.25/$60.75

Four players

  • $10: $7.43/$29.70
  • $25: $18.56/$74.25

Double zero

Heads up

  • $5: $15.12
  • $10: $30.24
  • $15: $45.36

Two players

  • $5: $10.26/$20.52
  • $10: $20.52/$41.04
  • $15: $30.78/$92.34

Three players

  • $5: $8.10/$24.30
  • $10: $16.20/$48.60
  • $15: $24.30/$72.90

Four players

  • $5: $7.43/$29.70
  • $10: $14.85/$59.40
  • $15: $22.28/$89.10

Triple zero roulette

Heads up

  • $5: $43.06
  • $10: $86.12
  • $15: $129.19

Two players

  • $5: $29.22/$58.44
  • $10: $58.44/$116.89
  • $15: $87.67/$175.33

Three players

  • $5: $23.07/$69.21
  • $10: $46.14/$138.42
  • $15: $69.21/$207.63

Four players

  • $5: $21.15/$84.59
  • $10: $42.30/$169.18
  • $15: $63.44/$253.77

Anticipated outcome of winning for houses on craps pass line wagers.

Based on the average number of rolls per hour at a table, which is influenced by the number of players, and the information provided by the Wizard of Odds, it is estimated that each roll from the pass line carries a house edge of 0.42 percent. These calculations take into account various factors that impact the overall odds in a game of craps. Understanding the probabilities associated with different bets is crucial for players who want to make informed decisions and maximize their chances of winning. By analyzing the data and considering the dynamics at the table, one can gain insights into the potential outcomes and strategize accordingly.

To generate revenue, craps tables heavily rely on players placing side bets like hops and hardways. Simple line bets alone won't suffice. Even if a casino reduces the number of dealers on one side of the table and accommodates three players, this approach barely impacts labor expenses, while simultaneously reducing the table's capacity by half.

One player

  • $5: $5.23
  • $10: $10.46
  • $15: $15.69

Two players

  • $5: $4.87/$9.74
  • $10: $9.74/$19.49
  • $15: $14.62/$43.85

Three players

  • $5: $4.54/$13.61
  • $10: $9.07/$27.22
  • $15: $13.61/$40.82

Four players

  • $5: $3.78/$15.12
  • $10: $7.56/$30.24
  • $15: $11.34/$45.36

Five players

  • $5: $3.02/$15.12
  • $10: $6.04/$30.20
  • $15: $9.06/$45.30

Six players

  • $5: $2.94/$17.64
  • $10: $5.88/$29.40
  • $15: $8.82/$52.92